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Cuireadh an téacs thíos mar aguisín do Leabhar na Nornaightheadh Ccomhchoitchionn (Leabhar na nUrnaí Coitinne) a foilsíodh sa bhliain 1712.  Leaganacha athchóirithe: PDF  ePUB

Tabhair faoi deara gur leabhar eile ar fad atá in The Elements of the Irish Language, grammatically explained in English le Aodh Buí Mac Cruitín a foilsíodh sa bhliain 1728.

Iriſh  Language.

§  1.  Of  the  LETTERS.
The  LETTERS  are  only  theſe  18  following.

Name. Figure. Pronunciation. Name. Figure. Pronunciation.
Ailim A a a Lat. or Fr. Luis L l l
Beith B b b Muin M m m
Coll C c k Nuin N n n
Duir D d d Onn O o o
Eadh E e e Lat. or Fr. Peithboc P p p
Fearn F f f Ruis R r r
Gort G g g Gr. Sail S s s
Uath H h h Tinne T t t
  I i i Fr. or se Eng. Uir U u u oo Eng.

§.  2.  Of  Vowels,  Dipthongs  and  Tripthongs.

THe Vowels are a, e, i, o, u.  A, O, U, broad :  E, I, ſmall.  Of the various compoſitions of the Vowels, ariſe 13 Dipthongs, and 5 Tripthongs, according to this old Rule, in which their ſeveral Claſſes are diſtinguiſhed by Terms of Art, beginning with the leading Vowel of each Claſs, Viz.

Ceiṫre haṁarċ[ll ríoṁṫar ann,
Ć[g h>ḃaḋa fós go coitċ=nn,
Ć[g ifíne muin ar ṁ[n.
Trí huilleanna ; oir na haon8.

Of the firſt ſort called aṁarċ[ll, or Apthongs,  i. e. Dipthongs or Tripthongs beginning with the Vowel a, there are four, of which three are Dipthongs, and one a Tripthong, as followeth,

ae } Lae rae laeṫeaṁul.    
ai } Fáiḋ, maiṫ, saiṫ,   long or ſhort.
ao } ć{r
{ This Dipthong is always long, and hath a peculiar ſound not uſed in any other Language that I know ; which may be learned by the Ear.
aoi } caoi. maoin. raoir   long.

Of the ſecond ſort called Eaḃa, or Ephthongs, there are four Dipthongs, and one Tripthong.

ea Geal, s=l, séad, long, or ſhort.
ei Ceil, féil, meil, long or ſhort.
eo Céol, ceo, ceolan, long.
ea Céud, seud, meud, meur, long.
eoi Feoil, treoir, beoir, long.

Of the third ſort called ifíne, or Iphthongs, there are three Dipthongs, and two Tripthongs.

ia Srían, grían, mían, long.
io Fíor, iolar, iolarḋa, long or ſhort.
iu Fliuċ, tiuġ, diul, long or ſhort.
iai Diaiġ, a ndiaiġ a gcriaiḋ long.
iui Stiuir, an ċi[l, ci[n, long.

There is but one Ophthong called oir, o being prefixed to no Vowel but i, as coir, cóir, long or ſhort.

There are three Uill=nna, or Upthongs, whereof two are Dipthongs and one a Tripthong.  viz.

ua Fuáṫ, sluaġ, tuaḋ, long.
ui Fuil, ś[l, ́[r, long or ſhort.
uai Búail, fuáir, uáir, long.

1. Note,  That theſe Dipthongs ae, ao, eo, eu, ia, and all Tripthongs are long, and therefore need not be marked with an acute in Writing or print.

2. Note, That all Vowels coming together without a consonant interpoſing, make but one Syllable.

3. Note, That the Iriſh always put an accent over the Vowel, that is to be pronounced long, thus ( ´ ).

§. 3 Of the Conſonants.

The Conſonants when they are ſingle, have the ſame force in Iriſh, as in Engliſh : only c is always pronounced as k ; and s before e or i is pronounced as ſh ; but before a, o, u, it hath the ſame power with an Engliſh s.

When two cs are joined together, they are pronounced as g ; thus, ccuid, is read guid.  And two ts have the force of d ; as tteaċ is read d=ċ.  When d goes before n, it is pronounced as n ; thus c>d0na is céanna.  Likewiſe, when d is placed before l, it hath the force of another l ; and ln are read as two lls, e. g. codlah , to Sleep, is read as collah ; and colna, of the Body, as colla.

ng, called Niatul in Iriſh, is for the moſt part pronounced as γγ in the Greek ; ſo aingeal, is pronounced as aγγeλ.

The Iriſh do not delight much in Conſonants, and therefore h is frequently added to b, c, d, f, g, m, p, s, t, to ſoſten the Language.

bh, and mh in the beginning and middle of words have the force of v Conſonant ; but in the latter end they, (and eſpecially mh) are pronounced a little flatter, when they come after a or e.

ch is read as the Greek χ.

dh and gh, ( which are often uſed indifferently for one another, ) have ſometimes in the beginning, and middle of a word, the force of y, and ſometimes they have a pronounciation, which is better learned by the Ear, than any deſcription that can be given of it.  But always in the End, and commonly in the middle of a word, they are pronounced only as h.

sh and th are pronounced as h alone, thus shuil, is huil ; and thomas is homas.

The variation of a word in Number, Caſe, or Tenſe, is very often indicated by adding a different Conſonant to the Initial one ; and then the Initial Conſonant ( called litir ṡ=lḃuiġṫe,  i. e. the poſſeſſive Letter, becauſe it poſſeſſes the firſt place in the Nominative Caſe, or preſent Tenſe indicative ) is quieſcent, and the additional only pronounced ; thus pobul in the Nominative, is altered into bpobul in the Ablative, the p not being pronounced , but the Initial or Poſſeſſive Letter is always written, to ſhew the Primative, or Radix of the word.

The greateſt difficulty of Reading, or ſpeaking Iriſh conſiſts in pronouncing dh, gh, and the Dipthongs and Tripthongs aright ; but this is readily attained by a little inſtruction by the Ear, and Practice ; whereby the Pronunciation of the Language is rendered eaſy and agreeable, there being much uſe made of Vowels, and little of Conſonants in it.

Iriſh Abbreviations uſed in this  BOOK.

⁊ , 8 , ́{ : @ : = , > . 0n : [ , ́[ . ḃ , ċ , ḋ , ḟ , ġ , ṁ , ṗ , ṡ , ṫ.
agus air ao : chd : ea , éa : nn : ui úi . bh , ch , dh , fh , gh , mh , ph , sh , th.

LONDON,  Printed by Eleanor Everingham, at the Seven
in Ave-Mary-Lane,  A. D.  1712.